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Saturday, September 18, 2010

The Mystery of Russian Grain Exports: It’s the Prices, Stupid!

A Soviet joke: A hick from the north is asked by his friend to bring back meat from Moscow. “I don’t know Moscow,” he responds. “How do I find meat?” Answer: “Just go stand in the longest line you can find.” The original punch line: The hick returns with no meat. He spent all his time standing in the line at Lenin’s mausoleum! My new punch line: The hick returns without meat and tells his friend: “I have brought you bread, instead.” Most readers will not understand what is going on. It is a joke because bread was the one food product you could buy anytime and anywhere. My joke sheds light on why Russia (and Ukraine) are again major grain exporters, despite the fact that grain production is no greater than in the 1970s and 1980s when Russia was a major grain importer. It also explains one of the reasons for the collapse of the USSR: the fact that low bread prices imposed huge costs on the Soviet state, exceeded only by its huge defense burden.

Let me start with some facts: Russia became Europe’s breadbasket in the 1870s. It was only around the turn of the century that the United States matched Russia in grain exports. Under Stalin’s rule, agriculture was collectivized and the best peasants deported, imprisoned or killed. By 1972, the Soviet Union started importing huge quantities of grain from the United States and other countries, driving up world food price throughout the rest of the 1970s.

Agriculture has been slow to reform after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The rural population is old; it is still not legal to buy and sell agricultural land; and there have been no substantial new investments in agriculture. Russia, in the last three years, has averaged around one hundred million metric tons of grain; The Russian Republic’s contribution to USSR grain production was also about one hundred million metric tons in 1985, a year in which one fifth of grain consumption had to be covered by imports.

Contemporary Russia has transformed itself from a grain importer to exporter not because it is producing more. It is consuming less grain domestically, leaving a “surplus” for export. Skeptics may say that this is a sign of poverty, that the Russian diet is deteriorating. It is the opposite: Russians no longer have to make do with just bread. They can buy what they want with the money they have. For the older generation, this is a novelty. In the Soviet period, the state set food prices low. After all, this was a worker-peasant state and food should be affordable to all. Low food prices were not simply an act of benevolence on the part of the leadership. Attempts to raise food prices were met with bloody riots, such as in Novocherkassk in June of 1962. After 1962, there were no more attempts to raise food prices, except by stealth. Party leaders could not forget that the Bolshevik Revolution began with bread riots in March of 1917. Communist functionaries thereafter lived with fear of a bread riot in their district. Near the end of Gorbachev’s chaotic rule, rumors of shortage could still empty bakeries of bread.

At low food prices, consumers had to stand in line for just about everything. They often returned home without the goods they wanted, but at least there was always bread, which cost only a few kopeks. Bread was like a safety valve into which unspent food money flowed. In effect, the Soviet state had an implicit contract with the people that they could always get cheap bread, no matter what. Cheap bread, however, also met waste. Throughout the Soviet period, there were accounts of peasants feeding bread to hogs.

This implicit contract sounds noble, but it had unintended consequences that hastened the end of the Soviet Union: It caused the USSR, with some of the richest agricultural land in the world, to become a grain importer. State agricultural subsidies became the second largest item (behind defense) in the state budget. Food problems revealed to Soviet citizens the weaknesses of the system.

The commitment to make bread available to all at a dirt-cheap price meant that there had to be enough of it. In terms of real economic costs, Soviet bread became among the most expensive in the world. Because its retail price was below the cost of production; state subsidies to state and collective farms equaled around four percent of GDP (more than the cost of running the entire government). Even that was not enough. There was no way Soviet agriculture was going to produce enough grain to satisfy the artificially-inflated domestic demand. Starting in 1972, the Soviet Union began to import large quantities of grain, which it paid for with foreign credits and energy exports. These policies made the contradictions of the Soviet system apparent to all: The country that should have been the bread basket of Europe was forced to import grain, paying for it with its earnings from the one product that it could sell at a profit in world markets – energy. When world energy prices were low, the Soviet Union had to borrow from the West, accumulating foreign debt that reached alarming proportions by the standards of the time. All of this to make sure that any and every family could buy bread for kopeks.

We economists (not all) tend to preach the “allocative efficiency” of market prices. We warn that rent controls, subsidized interest rates, and other interventions into the price system have unintended consequences that overwhelm the original “good” intention. In the case of Russia, the almost incalculable unintended consequences are evident from a “natural experiment.” We see a Soviet Russia with low prices of food products but bread prices are particularly low. We then see a Russian Federation with market prices for food. In both cases, the domestic production of grain is about the same. In the Soviet case, food subsidies consume a large portion of the state budget, scarce foreign exchange is used for grain imports, foreign debt is piling up, and people cannot buy the food products they want. In the Russian Federation case, food subsidies have disappeared, the country is earning foreign exchange not only from energy but also from grain, foreign debt is being repaid. In the Soviet Russia case, the country is hostage to grain suppliers. In the Russian Federation case, Europe is hostage to Russian natural gas supplies and world grain prices are affected by Russia’s export policies.

There will be a sequel to this piece. It shows that Russian agriculture is still in the early phases of reform. It is producing about the same amount as it did during the disastrous Soviet period of collective and state farming. When Russian and Ukrainian agriculture reach their potential, world grain markets will be changed forever. We do not know how long we will have to wait to see this happen.

60 comments:

  1. Slow to reform..ne to slovo. However, when reform achieves its objective..once the cadastre is complete and markets function better in production of grain --at the current time, production remains highly concentrated--then supply side features will no long so constrain output improvement.
    But this is complex--what is also required is a new innovative relationship between research and production. At present, that linkage is very weak.

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  2. Also..it was not really the bread that was wanted beginning about 1970s in grain imports but the feed for cattle, ie, meat consumption, in my view.

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  4. Splendid...the post is well said,as grain export help provide good status for WOMEN IN FARMING and also provide good bread in the market. Thanks

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  27. Wow...This is actually hard for me to believe now,My name is Michelle Harris I want to use this golden opportunity to appreciate the great spell caster Dr.Ofemo for helping me get back my relationship with my boyfriend when he ended and turned his back on me for quite a long period of time.I have great joy in me as i am writing this testimony about the great man called Dr.Ofemo When my lover left me i never taught that i will be able to get him back after all he has put me through, But i am so happy that after the interference of Dr.Ofemo i was able to get my lover back after 24hours and i can proudly to say, that who ever need help in getting there lover back should contact:drofemospelltemple@gmail.com You can also contact him through his mobile:+2348163387496 I have introduced him to a lot of couples with problems across the world and they have had good news.web site: http://drofemospelltemple.wix.com/dr-ofemo Just thought I should share my experience cause I strongly believe someone out there needs it.ONCE AGAIN HIS EMAIL ADDRESS AT:drofemospelltemple@yahoo.com

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  29. I was checking for solution in the internet then miraculously came Across Dr Miracle, the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his Email: (MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) I Explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 Disease totally after receiving his Herbal medicine, So My friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Miracle,that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, You Can "CONTACT Via : Email : (MIRACLESPELLHOME@YAHOO.COM) You Can Contact Him Today And Get Your Problem Solved Or"Call +2348071398555.." Or You Can Also Contact Him Through His Website http://miraclespellhome.webs.com/,,,,

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  31. Why I am writing this testimony is because I made a promise that whosoever that helps me out of my relationship predicament deserves to be known even more by the world. I am 37 years of age, my husband had a very powerful love spell on him that a female he knows put on him and I wanted it removed as this caused serious problems in our marriage and he left me for her. It seemed nothing on earth can bring our paths together forever, I felt really bad because I love him so dearly. I had sleepless nights because I missed my hubby’s touch and care. I seldom visit this webpage but anytime I do, I see two or more positive reviews about a man named dr. Adoda and his mysterious and miraculous works that saves relationships and marriages, this got me curious. Also, I normally see other several reviews, although I learn't that there are lots of scammers out there but I contacted Adoda because I was convinced by a testifier I contacted, that dr. Adoda spell is the big deal. I gave him a chance out of my doubting spirit but to my greatest surprise my husband called me 2 days after dr. Adoda did his thing on him and my hubby’s behalf, that he is so sorry for all the pains he has made me pass through, he wanted to be back home. Presently our love is more than that of Romeo and Juliet, he takes too good care of me now, 110% than before. I know there are others out there, I say if you find dr.adodalovespelltemple@gmail.com then your problem is as well solved. Lydia Ryan W. from California, USA.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am really pleased with the service Dr Okaya render to me. I am one of those people who said, “I’ll never call a psychic or a magician or whatever” to help me with my problems – least of all problems, but I reached the point where I knew I needed some guidance, and I’m so glad I found this man called Dr. Okaya I never in a million years would have thought I’d be writing a Testimony like this, but when I nearly lost my man in one of our stupid,fights (he broke up with me), I thought I had lost everything.i cry all day and think that he will never come back to me again.i read a testimony by a woman called Maya about him saying that how Dr. Okaya help him to get back is EX within 48 hours.I quickly email him. He did a (Love spell) for me. 48 hours later, my ((Ex )) came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal and our love is now stronger that he can't do without being with me. I and my Man are living together happily again. Dr. Okaya is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. And when I was at my most desperate,he didn’t take advantage of me. You performed a very good service for a person in true need. I don’t know how you did it, or how this magic works, but all I know is, IT WORKS!!
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  32. Hello everyone, my name is Kate Johnson.i was able to hack my husband's phone remotely and gained access to all his texts and callswith the help of ghosthacker2351@gmail.com.he is very fast and reliable,I use him whenever I want to be sure about someone.if you require his services tell him I referred you.

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  33. HELLO!!!!!
    I am erickson, When I eventually found testimonies about this spell caster Dr ozalogbo, how he helped many people to get their lovers and broken homes back, i contacted him through his email address ozalogboshrine@yahoo.com because I was absolutely desperate to get my wife back. Life without my wife was a real mess for me and my children. i wanted a dramatic change and I thought magic could be the solution. After discussing the resolution with Dr ozalogbo, he gave me hope that he will restore my marriage. I felt confident that he will actually make my wife to return home and he did! It’s fantastic what this great spell caster have done for me, his help is priceless! I don't know what I would have done without Dr ozalogbo's help,he does his job so well he is organized and highly functional, i believe he is the best spell caster i can count on when it comes to all kinds of spell, I was floored that his spells worked, if you need help, contact him on ozalogboshrine@yahoo.com

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  34. HELLO!!!!!
    I am erickson, When I eventually found testimonies about this spell caster Dr ozalogbo, how he helped many people to get their lovers and broken homes back, i contacted him through his email address ozalogboshrine@yahoo.com because I was absolutely desperate to get my wife back. Life without my wife was a real mess for me and my children. i wanted a dramatic change and I thought magic could be the solution. After discussing the resolution with Dr ozalogbo, he gave me hope that he will restore my marriage. I felt confident that he will actually make my wife to return home and he did! It’s fantastic what this great spell caster have done for me, his help is priceless! I don't know what I would have done without Dr ozalogbo's help,he does his job so well he is organized and highly functional, i believe he is the best spell caster i can count on when it comes to all kinds of spell, I was floored that his spells worked, if you need help, contact him on ozalogboshrine@yahoo.com

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  35. I'm John Miley, an army of the United States.
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  37. I feel so blessed again in my marriage after Doctor Oku brought back my husband that separated with me for good 3 mounths. Am Jessica Butler by name from USA. Even though i have mouths all over my body, it won't be enough to thank Doctor Oku for his help upon my life. My husband separated with me for the 3 months and have been in pains and agony without him. So, i searched for help everywhere but nothing worked out not until i meant Doctor Oku who i contacted online. I explained my situation to him and he promised that my husband will get back to me within 24 to 48 hours as far that my heart still beats for him. I believed in him and he prepared a spell for me and my husband called me exactly when Doctor Oku said. He pleaded and said he needs me back and now we are living happily again for the past 9 months. Everyone out there reading my article that needs help should contact him... Email: okutemple@gmail.com or call +2347053113465

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  39. OMG!! This is certainly a shocking and a genuine Testimony..I visited a forum here on the internet on the 6TH OF MAY 2017, And I saw a marvelous testimony of this powerful and great spell caster called DR adoda on the forum..I never believed it, because I never heard nor learnt anything about magic before.. Not a soul would have been able to influence me about magical spells, not until i visit (adodalovespelltemple@gmail.com) and behold he did it for me and restored my marriage of 8 years back to me and brought my spouse back to me in the same 48hours just as I have read on the Internet..I was truly astonished and shocked when my husband knelt down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back.. I am really short of expressions, and I don't know how much to convey my appreciation to you DR Adoda, you are a God sent to me and my entire family. Visit him today on ( adodalovespelltemple@gmail.com) Am Evelyn by name.

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hey guys, I'm so excited of getting my husband back after he left me and our 3 kids for another woman.
    After 2 years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. i felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before,All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,
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    Jessica, 26 years, Texas, USA .

    ReplyDelete
  41. My name is Jessica Luis, and I base in USA...My life is back!!! After 1 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called Dr Mohammed, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Sonia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr Mohammed's e-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before Dr Mohammed, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man... If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try High monicaspiritualtemple@gmail.com anytime, he might be the answer to your problems. Here's his contact: monicaspiritualtemple@gmail.com or call him +2348134493948

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I wake up everyday with a smile on my face and singing praises to this powerful spell caster called Dr,Okaya who has done me a great favor by rescuing my relationship from break up. I used to think that i have a perfect relationship till when my lover started coming home late and everyday he gives me different excuses then i decided to keep a close eye on him then i discovers that he was having an affair with another Woman, I was heart broken because i trusted him so much and knowing that he has a secret relationship, hurts me a lot.. But i thank all those who placed the contact information of Dr,Okaya on the internet because through that i have been able to contact Dr, and today my relationship has been restored with love and more Respect than ever before. If you are in any kind of relationship or marriage stress i will do you a favor by dropping the contact information's of Dr,Okaya which are via email: OKAYASPELLHELP@GMAIL.COM ... OR call Him on his number +270814506790

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  42. My name is Jessica Luis, and I base in USA...My life is back!!! After 1 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called Dr Mohammed, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Sonia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr Mohammed's e-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before Dr Mohammed, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man... If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try High monicaspiritualtemple@gmail.com anytime, he might be the answer to your problems. Here's his contact: monicaspiritualtemple@gmail.com or call him +2348134493948

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  44. What a miracle to have my ex back,my name is mary benny
    and i need to share this great testimony... I just want to say thanks Dr gbojie for taking time to help me cast the spell

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    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I wake up everyday with a smile on my face and singing praises to this powerful spell caster called Dr,Okaya who has done me a great favor by rescuing my relationship from break up. I used to think that i have a perfect relationship till when my lover started coming home late and everyday he gives me different excuses then i decided to keep a close eye on him then i discovers that he was having an affair with another Woman, I was heart broken because i trusted him so much and knowing that he has a secret relationship, hurts me a lot.. But i thank all those who placed the contact information of Dr,Okaya on the internet because through that i have been able to contact Dr, and today my relationship has been restored with love and more Respect than ever before. If you are in any kind of relationship or marriage stress i will do you a favor by dropping the contact information's of Dr,Okaya which are via email: OKAYASPELLHELP@GMAIL.COM ... OR call Him on his number +270814506790

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  45. A REAL GENUINE LOVE SPELL TO GET BACK YOUR EX EMAIL: ULTIMATESPELLCAST@GMAIL.COM

    My name is Olivia Hann From Australia. I am really pleased with this service Dr. Trust render to me. I am one of those people who said, “I’ll never call a psychic or a magician or whatever” to help me with my problems – least of all my love problems, but I reached the point where I knew I needed some guidance, and I’m so glad I found this man called Dr. Trust I never in a million years would have thought I’d be writing a letter like this, but when I nearly lost Andrew in one of our stupid,fights (he broke up with me), I thought I had lost everything.i cry all day and think that he will never come back to me again.i read a testimony by a man called Taylor Borg about him saying that how Dr. Trust help him to get back is EX wife within 48n hours.I quickly email him. He did a (Lover spell) for me. 48 hours later, my ((Ex Boyfriend)) came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal and our love is now stronger that he can't do without being with me. I and my boyfriend are living together happily again. Dr. Trust is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. And when I was at my most desperate,he didn’t take advantage of me. You performed a very good service for a person in true need. I don’t know how you did it, or how this magic works, but all I know is, IT WORKS!! Andrew and i are happily back together, and I’ll always be grateful to Dr. Trust email him for any kinds of help is very capable and reliable for help

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  47. OMG! I cant believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw peoples testimony on blog sites of how lord Abu prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the herpes the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain, and i have just went for text last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes system on my body. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine to lord Abu I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that their is no cure for herpes that is Not true ,Here is his email lordabutemple123@yahoo.com OR website:http://lordabu.wixsite.com/http Sir i am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend you to my friends,THESE ARE THE THINGS lord Abu cure . getting your ex back . HIV/AIDS . CANCER . ALS disease.HVS2. and any types of HERPES.hpv.

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  48. I wake up everyday with a smile on my face and singing praises to this powerful spell caster called Dr,Okaya who has done me a great favor by rescuing my relationship from break up. I used to think that i have a perfect relationship till when my lover started coming home late and everyday he gives me different excuses then i decided to keep a close eye on him then i discovers that he was having an affair with another Woman, I was heart broken because i trusted him so much and knowing that he has a secret relationship, hurts me a lot.. But i thank all those who placed the contact information of Dr,Okaya on the internet because through that i have been able to contact Dr, and today my relationship has been restored with love and more Respect than ever before. If you are in any kind of relationship or marriage stress i will do you a favor by dropping the contact information's of Dr,Okaya which are via email: OKAYASPELLHELP@GMAIL.COM ... OR call Him on his number +270814506790

    ReplyDelete
  49. With the help of Dr.Kabasa the spell caster i was able to get back my wife to my arms after she has left me because of the fight we had. and since Dr.Kabasa did the spell that made her to come back to me, she has love me more than before and she is so committed to me now. For urgent help to get your woman back i will want u to contact Dr.Kabasa on his email: kabasaspell@gmail.com for quick response from him to get your marriage back...

    Alexanda

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  51. Dr. Ekpen Temple Your spell worked and brought my husband back to me. You gave me support when I was feeling hopeless. I feel truly blessed to have found your email address. I sincerely hope others will take that leap of faith and let you help them as you have helped me, for those of you who want to contact him reach him on his email address: ( ekpentemple@gmail.com ) OR WHATSAPP +2347050270218 you will never regret contacting him… He is capable of restoring your relationship and marriage problems like he did for me.

    ReplyDelete
  52. Testimony On How My Ex Come Back.
    My name is Lorna Harron, and I base in USA...My life is back!!! After 2 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called Dr Ogboni, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Sonia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr ogboni's e-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before Dr Ogboni, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man... If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try High ogbonispelltemple@hotmail.com anytime, he might be the answer to your problems. Here's his contact: ogbonispelltemple@hotmail.com or call him :+2347054263874

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  53. How I Got My Ex Husband Back...........

    I am Shannon by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my husband after three(3) years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address Makospelltemple@yahoo.com , have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband. Thanks for Dr.Mako. His email: Makospelltemple@yahoo.com OR. his phone number: +2348108737816.

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  54. OMG! I cant believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw peoples testimony on blog sites of how lord Abu prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the herpes the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain, and i have just went for text last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes system on my body. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine to lord Abu I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that their is no cure for herpes that is Not true ,Here is his email lordabutemple123@yahoo.com his whatsap number: +2348067476878 OR website:http://lordabutemple.webs.com/ Sir i am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend you to my friends,THESE ARE THE THINGS lord Abu cure . getting your ex back . HIV/AIDS . CANCER . ALS disease.HVS2. and any types of HERPES.hpv.

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  55. what a wonderful world we are living, i still doubt this spell caster how he did it!!! i am Shechan Caroline am from Los Angeles I am so happy to let the whole word know how this powerful spell caster saved my marriage.Everything was going down the drain as my husband can not stop cheating on me with other women. It became used to always heating on me. I tried to make him stop, but I couldn't help the situation, the more I tried, the harder it becomes. At times we will fight and go apart for some months and we will come back again just because of our kids. One day a friend told me about this spell caster who helped her too, his name is Dr.oku, she said he uses white magic spells to solve spiritual problems. I decided to give it a try, I contacted him and he told me it will take just 2 to 3 days and I will see great changes in my husband. He actually cast a spell, believe me after 2 to 3 days of the spell, my husband was confessing different names of woman he has slept with. He begged for forgiveness and never to try it again. From that day till now, my mind is at rest. My husband dislike every other women on earth except me. And am so happy to have him for myself alone.The spell caster’s contact is okutemple@gmail.com or add him on whasapp +2347053113465

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