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Thursday, October 7, 2010

Comment on Michael Warren: Why Germany’s Unemployment Rate is Lower

Michael Warren in his article “Why Germany’s Unemployment Rate is Lower” concludes that Germany’s practice of Kurzarbeit (“short work”) is a primary factor behind Germany’s shrinking unemployment rate. On this, see: http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/why-germanys-unemployment-rate-lower

Kurzarbeit has been a part of German labor legislation since the days of Bismarck and the Weimer Republic. It was used on a massive scale in Eastern Germany after reunification, but its use as a counter-cyclical measure in 2008 and 2009 was unprecedented. Some 1.5 million German workers were on Kurzarbeit in this period. The number is currently about 800,000. If all Kurzarbeiter had been unemployed, Germany unemployment rate would almost have doubled.

We can contrast Germany’s Kurzarbeit with the implicit wage contract model used with negative effects by the U.S. auto and steel industries. With Kurzarbeit, a cyclical downturn means a reduction in work hours. Workers continued to be paid their regular hourly wage, but earn less because of the fewer hours. The lower earnings are subsidized around 60 percent by unemployment insurance and other subsidies. In the U.S. implicit wage contract model, cyclical downturns mean layoffs. Laid off workers do not seek other jobs because they are paid well above market wages, and it is better for them to wait to be recalled. Moreover, they receive unemployment benefits to cushion the income loss of the layoff. In both cases, employers benefit by not losing skilled workers who would have to be replaced with costly job searches and training during the upturn.

The Germans are learning that Kurzarbeit is not a panacea. Like U.S. unemployment insurance, it subsidizes not working and makes it more attractive. Like in the United States, political pressure results in extensions of benefits; so that Kurzarbeit threatens to become a permanent feature of the labor market even during upturns. Evidence of this is the fact that Kurzarbeit has spread into economic branches that were not affected by the downturn.

I would venture that Kurzarbeit is only one of several factors that explain the falling German unemployment rate. Other factors that could be equally as important are the growing use of Leiharbeiter (rent-a-workers) and the pretence that employees are independent contractors. Leiarbeiter are “rented” from intermediaries and can be hired and fired at will. Sham independent contractors (a prime example is truck drivers who “lease” their truck from their employer) fall outside of Germany’s strict and cumbersome rules on employee firing.

Why is it that Germany, with its Sozialstaat, has become so innovative in making its labor market more flexible? The German economy relies on export markets and is located next to cheap labor markets in the East. If German firms cannot compete with lower wage markets, firms and jobs leave Germany. There is therefore incredible pressure to find innovative ways to compete in export markets. Formal German labor market rules not only impose huge social benefits costs on employers. They make it very difficult to lay off or fire workers during downturns. For this reason, German companies are reluctant to hire new employees into jobs governed by these rules. Were it not for Kurzarbeit, Leiharbeit, and independent contracting, German unemployment would today be higher than those of the United States.

Germany is, in effect, becoming a dual labor market in which a shrinking number enjoy the vast benefits of the Sozialstaat and a growing number are working in highly competitive labor markets.

In addition to other responsibilities, the author is a Research Professor at the German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin.

20 comments:



  1. My name is Monica, From Mary Land.. My world and my life is back!!! After one year of Broken relationship, my boyfriend left me for know reason. I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. (Thanks to a spell caster called Dr biya), which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer, Hiv,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called CINDY,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than two days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr Biya e-mail address. After reading all these,I decided to give it a try.I contacted him via email drbiyaspelltemple19213@gmail.com and explained my problem to him, he told me In 48hours my husband will came back to me. to my surprise he come to my house asking me to forgive him We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before..Is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man... If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. He's legit. Contact him on HIS EMAIL DRBIYASPELLTEMPLE19213@GMAIL.COM or contact him on whatsapp:08026382556 Thank you Dr Biya

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +1(424)-261-8520.
      https://assurancesolutionhome.blogspot.com



























      My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +1(424)-261-8520.
      https://assurancesolutionhome.blogspot.com








































      Delete
    2. It my privilege to say thanks to Dr.Imoudu for his herbal product he provide for me and today my sexual life is healthy and balance am living up to my wife expectation. For the past 11 years i have been struggling with my penis issue I have a very small penis like 2.6 inc. I have spent a lot of money on it but no product work for me, until i took this product from Dr.Imoudu just within few weeks i got 8.5 inches penis size, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 10.3 inches or more you can contact Dr.Imoudu for his products on his email: DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM. And you can also WhatsApp +2348109609753. so if you have any problem
      HIV
      HERPES
      CANCER
      ALS
      HEPATITIS B
      DIABETIC
      COPD
      you can contact him, i also want you to be free contact DR Imoudu with the email attach to my post DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM

      Delete
    3. Hello! I'm very excited to inform everyone that I'm completely cured from my HSV 1&2 recently. I have used Oregano oil, Coconut oil, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir, and some other products and it's really help during my outbreaks but I totally got cured! from my HSV with a strong and active herbal medicine ordered from a powerful herbalist and it completely fought the virus from my nervous system and I was tested negative after 12 days of using the herbal medicine. I'm here to let y'all know that herpes virus has a complete cure, I got rid of mine with the help of Dr Emmanuel and his herbal exploit. Contact him via email: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp him at +2348140073965
       thank you..

      Delete
    4. I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor ehiaguna who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 week with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc ehiaguna email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through drehiaguna@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348073908953... And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer  ETC

      Delete
    5. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953 he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

      Delete
  2. Are you looking for a reliable and a good spell caster to bring back your ex boyfriend a divorce with the help of Dr Sambo Email: divinespellhome@gmail.com

    Dr Sambo thank u for what u did in my life because I had lost hope after trying so many spell casters and no one was able to help me bring back my boyfriend because he had changed a lot, suddenly and he stopped calling me like before and didn't even have any more time to hang out with me and even when I sent him messages he read them but never respond me. I loved my boyfriend too much and didn't want to lose him because we had been together for 5years. As I was about to give up I came across Dr Sambo and saw how he had helped many people successfully with their love life. I got his number +2348145810121 and contacted him. He gave me few days to see the results and he did a love and binding spell for me and to my greatest surprise my boyfriend sent me a message after few days and apologized for the way he had been treating me and neglecting me and promised to love me and never hurt me again. I couldn't believe it, because I had been disappointed by so many spell casters it’s been a month now we are living happily and he just proposed to me. All I can say is Thanks you very much Dr Sambo. Your spells indeed works. You can contact him on his email:divinespellhome@gmail.com or divinespellhome@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  3. MY HUSBAND IS BACK WITH THE GREAT HELP OF DR SAM LOVE SPELL

    Hi everyone, I Was going crazy when my husband breakup with me and left me for another woman!! All thanks to Dr Sam the best love spell caster online that helped me to bring back my husband today and restore happiness in my marriage.. I'm Grecia Cruzi by name i lives in United States. My husband breakup with me and left me to be with another woman, and i wanted him back. I was so frustrated and i could not know what next to do again, I love my husband so much but he was cheating on me with another woman and this makes him break up with me so that he can be able to get married to the other lady and this lady i think use witchcraft on my husband to make him hate me and my kids and this was so critical and uncalled-for, I cry all day and night for God to send me a helper to get back my husband!! I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Sam can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me so much, Oh My God! i was so happy, and today i am happy with my man again and we are joyfully living together as one big family and i thank the powerful spell caster Dr Sam, he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Sam is best spell caster online who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and your lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster Dr Sam on his email at: (Supremespellcast@gmail.com Or Supremespellcast@yahoo.com WhatsApp +2347087462033) com you can visit his Website Via> http://supremespellcast.website2.me Or his blog> https://supremespellcast.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hello am Tara Asin. am 53yrs,I just want to share a brief story on how i won the US LOTTERY POWER BALL on August 23,2017 with the winning i got from a Lottery spell caster, Priest Allen Aziba. This voodoo man has make me believe that voodoo is real and it works. I seek a lottery spell (voodoo) from him and he gave me the right numbers to hit the US lottery POWERBALL, It was easy, fast, but i was doubting every bit of it that i might not win the lottery because i have already spend a lot on the online tips and software which turns out to be a waste .but Priest Allen Aziba. prove me wrong and delivered to me the numbers to win the lottery after casting the spell and i won $500.000 and more, you can see for your self here (http://www.mlive.com) without wasting time I settled all my debt immediately and i must tell you this is the secret behind winning any lottery game. i recommend you to contact Priest Allen Aziba for your winning numbers lets make the world a happy place to live inn Contact him via Email:[ Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ]or via website: [ https://drallenhealingcureworldwide.webs.com/ ] Priest Allen Aziba WhatsApp contact [ +2348100368288 ]



    Hello am Tara Asin. am 53yrs,I just want to share a brief story on how i won the US LOTTERY POWER BALL on August 23,2017 with the winning i got from a Lottery spell caster, Priest Allen Aziba. This voodoo man has make me believe that voodoo is real and it works. I seek a lottery spell (voodoo) from him and he gave me the right numbers to hit the US lottery POWERBALL, It was easy, fast, but i was doubting every bit of it that i might not win the lottery because i have already spend a lot on the online tips and software which turns out to be a waste .but Priest Allen Aziba. prove me wrong and delivered to me the numbers to win the lottery after casting the spell and i won $500.000 and more, you can see for your self here (http://www.mlive.com) without wasting time I settled all my debt immediately and i must tell you this is the secret behind winning any lottery game. i recommend you to contact Priest Allen Aziba for your winning numbers lets make the world a happy place to live inn Contact him via Email:[ Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ]or via website: [ https://drallenhealingcureworldwide.webs.com/ ] Priest Allen Aziba WhatsApp contact [ +2348100368288 ]

    ReplyDelete
  5. I am Morgan Jewell,i am from Californian,i want to use this wonderful
    opportunity to thank Dr. clement who helped me and my wife to won lottery. We
    won(£33,035,323) i have spent so much money playing this game for many years,i ask myself sometimes when will i win huge amount of money,one day i came across Dr.clement advertisement on internet how he helped people and grant them their heart desire by winning lottery with his powerful lottery spell,so
    i decided to email him. He assure us that our request will be granted once he
    cast the lucky winning spell,i believe and follow his instructions,after the
    casting of the spell,he sent us the winning numbers,wish we use to play and
    won {Thirty three million,thirty five thousand,three hundred twenty three
    pounds} right now i am short of words,we are multimillionaire we won a huge
    amount,he is the best man on earth to work with,he take away the poverty from
    my generation,his direct email is allmightbazulartemple@gmail.com///call or him whatsapp +2347051758952 just email him,he will also make you win any kind of game monopoly

    ReplyDelete
  6. I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr movo and decided to contact him on his email: {drmovo.supernaturalherbalmedic@gmail.com} so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend JOY, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr movo I also learn that Dr movo also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr movo now for help on his email:{drmovo.supernaturalherbalmedic@gmail.com} or whatsapp +2347061865209.

    ReplyDelete
  7. I want to use this means to let the world know that all hope is not lost Getting pregnant after having tubes clamped and burned, I know IVF and Reversal could help but it way too cost, i couldn't afford it either and i so desire to add another baby to my family been trying for 5 years, not until i came across Priest Babaka, who cast a pregnancy/Fertility spell for me and i got pregnant.l hope that women out there who are going through the same fears and worries l went through in GETTING PREGNANT , will find your contact as i drop it here on this site, and solution will come to them as they contact you. Thank you and God bless you to reach him email via: babaka.wolf@gmail.com or Facebook at priest.babaka

    ReplyDelete


  8. Hello everyone my name is Regina Alfred from NJ USA. After being in relationship with Richard for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don't believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr ikhile and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his Whatsapp:+27789518085, Email: solutiontemple27@gmail.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. I CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOUR GOOD WORK SIR HIS WEBSITE ADDRESS is http://solutiontemples.com CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS.

    ReplyDelete
  9. It my privilege to say thanks to Dr.Imoudu for his herbal product he provide for me and today my sexual life is healthy and balance am living up to my wife expectation. For the past 11 years i have been struggling with my penis issue I have a very small penis like 2.6 inc. I have spent a lot of money on it but no product work for me, until i took this product from Dr.Imoudu just within few weeks i got 8.5 inches penis size, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 10.3 inches or more you can contact Dr.Imoudu for his products on his email: DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM. And you can also WhatsApp +2348109609753. so if you have any problem
    HIV
    HERPES
    CANCER
    ALS
    HEPATITIS B
    DIABETIC
    COPD
    you can contact him, i also want you to be free contact DR Imoudu with the email attach to my post DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
  10. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr. Silver and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to Dr. Silver telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr. assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr. Silver (drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com) sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +2348123877102

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hello! I'm very excited to inform everyone that I'm completely cured from my HSV 1&2 recently. I have used Oregano oil, Coconut oil, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir, and some other products and it's really help during my outbreaks but I totally got cured! from my HSV with a strong and active herbal medicine ordered from a powerful herbalist and it completely fought the virus from my nervous system and I was tested negative after 12 days of using the herbal medicine. I'm here to let y'all know that herpes virus has a complete cure, I got rid of mine with the help of Dr Emmanuel and his herbal exploit. Contact him via email: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp him at +2348140073965
     thank you..

    ReplyDelete
  12. I want to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Akhere. for helping me get my lover back after he left me a 6 months ago. I sent friends and my brothers to beg for me, but he refused to let it all end between us, but when I met Dr. Akhere. he told me to relax that everything will be fine and really after just two days i recovered my man. thank you very much Dr. Akhere. here is the e-mail of this great man, Akheretemple@yahoo.com if you need his help, you can contact on whatsapp: +233235887825

    ReplyDelete
  13. I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor ehiaguna who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 week with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc ehiaguna email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through drehiaguna@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348073908953... And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer  ETC

    ReplyDelete
  14. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953 he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

    ReplyDelete
  15. I really appreciate the Great Prophet for returning my lover after 2 years of been together, i taught all hope was lost. Thanks to the Great Prophet for making me happy again. You can contact him and he will be of great help because he is a wonderful man? Mail him @ ( templeofrestoraction@gmail.com). or whatsapp @ +15754148400

    ReplyDelete